Attempts to critique and problematize the inequalities embedded in international sporting codes fall short in their failure to integrate the Marxist discussion of capitalist imperialism. This paper brings into conversation current scholarship on soccer in Africa with the works of Lenin on Imperialism and emerging discussions on nonterritorial imperialism. By examining both historical and structural perspectives on the imperialist use of soccer in Africa, visibility comes to the inequalities within international sport and also the theoretical formation of capitalist imperialism.
Murphy, Michael P. A. 2017. “The Empire Strikes Back: Towards a Marxist Critique of Soccer in Sub-Saharan Africa.” Sport in Society: Cultures, Commerce, Media, Politics http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17430437.2017.1284797.