From an employer’s perspective, keeping information about the pay system, such as the composition of a pay package, parameters of each pay component, average pay levels, pay ranges etc., under control is to their advantage. It is not to say that employers would prefer keeping workers completely in the dark about the incentive structure. Rather, employers tend to ensure that ‘just enough’ is known to workers for motivational purposes.
Even if China manages to move up in global value chains, without a paradigm shift and reorientation toward more balanced development focusing on peoples’ livelihoods, labor rights, social equity, and ecological sustainability that goes beyond the conventional developmental state, the prospects for China to escape the pitfalls of the energy-intensive, mass-consumption model remain dim.
My reading of 2011 in Libya suggests that the events did not produce something different, rather they largely emerged whilst more radical visions for the postcolonial future of the country had been gradually defeated. As it stands, capitalism’s promise of inclusion to the Global South is premised on the structural imperative to dominate it. Thus wars, sanctions and liberal interventions will continue to define the promise of capitalist modernity that haunts the present and future of the Global South.
The expansion of EdTech is built upon a longer-standing process of creating markets for schooling. Here a combination of markets and EdTech has served to standardize education, disrupt the connections between schools and local communities, deskill labour, and disadvantage marginalized groups.
While today many of the limited emergency regulations that were in place in April 2020 have been lifted (companies have ended hazard pay, the government has terminated the obligation to pay workers while they are out sick or quarantined, and some states have lifted safety policies like mandatory masks), workers are still getting sick, and in many cases still struggling with long term health and financial impacts of the pandemic, as well face ongoing precarity in their jobs.